%%EOF While modern herbicides have greatly reduced problems caused by Canada thistle in crop fields, it is still a formidable foe in pastures, roadsides and other less intensely managed areas. Canada thistle is found in natural areas such as prairies, savannas, glades and dunes where there has been disturbance. Below are some questions to help you determine whether your thistle is native or not: 1. It differs from other species in the same genus given its dioecious flowers. Female flowers have a pleasant vanilla-like aroma. Legal status: Canada thistle is considered a noxious weed in 46 states including Indiana. Canada thistle is a creeping perennial that reproduces from vegetative buds in its root system and from seed. Stems are 30–150 cm, slender green, and freely branched, smooth and glabrous (having no trichomes or glaucousness), mostly without spiny wings. This thistle is also commonly known as the creeping thistle and field thistle. Canada Thistle Facts. Canada thistle is a 2 to 5 foot tall herbaceous perennial with branched, grooved and slender stems that become covered in hair as the plant grows. True thistles have spines along the leaf margins and their flower heads are generally pink-purple and surrounded by bracts that are typically spiny. Canada thistle develops seed sparingly and may produce 1,000 to 1,500 seeds per flowering shoot. It stores food energy in its extensive root system both to survive the winter and to fuel the plant's reproductive drive the following season. (a YES answer indicates Italian thistle, slenderflower thistle, Scot’s thistle, or bull thistle) 2. Native To: Europe ( Nuzzo 1997) Date of U.S. … Blooms June-September. Combining control methods is the best form of Canada thistle management. Late spring (May/June) burns for three consecutive years stimulates seed germination and kills seedlings. Common Name: Canada thistle, Californian thistle, Canadian thistle, creeping thistle, field thistle, corn thistle, perennial thistle, field thistle. However, it is difficult to distinguish the two flower types based on appearance. Executive Office Montana Weed Control Association, Inc. PO Box 315, Twin Bridges, MT 59754 (406) 684-5590 | (888) 664-4153 (fax) An aggressive spreader with spear-like foliage topped with pointy, barb-like hairs, this invader does its very best to intimidate. Canada thistle is a good nectar plant for bees and butterflies, and goldfinches eat the seeds. endstream endobj startxref Patches of the troublesome weed are likely made up of only one plant with a shared root system. As mentioned earlier, they thrive in disturbed soils.) Roots are edible but often cause flatulence. Wildflowers Of WisconsinWild… • Itisdifficulttocontrolbecause itsextensiverootsystem allows it to recover from control attempts. Bull thistles (Cirsium vulgare) are exactly that – bullish. "»ÀvuƒÜùÕ6— èf°k€üÏÀ”÷ À %1Š 173 0 obj <> endobj Growth … A list of 1 interesting Canada Thistle facts! Species Assessment Groups (SAG) were assembled to recommend a legal classification for each species considered for NR 40. can colonize in an area 3 to 6 feet in diameter in one year. However, it is an invasive exotic weed that competes fiercely with native plants, and its presence degrades the native ecosystems it infests. Stems emerge from a basal rosette reaching 1 to 4 feet tall that branch into clusters of lavender to deep rose-purple flowers that are urn- shaped and bractless. Sunflower family (Asteraceae) NATIVE RANGE Temperate regions of Eurasia DESCRIPTION Canada thistle is an herbaceous perennial with erect stems 1½-4 feet tall, prickly leaves and an extensive creeping rootstock. Similar Species. Directly below the flower petals are several rows of overlapping floral bracts, or tiny leaf-like structures, that lack sharp spines. A leaf tea made from Canada thistle is used as a tonic and diuretic and has been used for tuberculosis. Canada thistle grows in a variety of habitats with full or partial sun and is often found in disturbed areas such as roadsides, trails, pastures, and recently flooded areas. Call 1-888-936-7463 (TTY Access via relay - 711) from 7 a.m. to 10 p.m. Invasives_Topic Contact_Invasive Species Coordinator, Plant Conservation Alliance’s Alien Plant Working Group, Common names: creeping thistle, field thistle, perennial thistle. McClay, A.S. Canada thistle In: Van Driesche, R., et al., 2002, Biological Control of Invasive Plants in the Eastern United States, USDA Forest Service Publication. Stems are branched, often slightly hairy, and Ontario Weeds Act - noxious; Other provinces - noxious in AB, BC, SK, MB, and QC; Canadian Federal Seeds Act - Class 3 ; U.S. Federal Noxious Weed - no It is also known as cursed thistle, probably due to the fact that chopping the roots with a plow effectively spreads the thistle across a field. It also prefers wet areas with fluctuating water levels, such as streambanks, sedge meadows and wet prairies. Once it has established it spreads quickly, forming monocultures. Other invasive thistles include the European marsh thistle (Cirsium palustre). Readily regenerates from root fragments. 0 It is native throughout Europe and northern Asia, and widely introduced elsewhere. Green on both sides; smooth early but becoming pubescent with maturity. Similar species: Canada thistle is distinguished from all other thistles by creeping lateral roots, dense clonal growth; and small dioecious flower heads (meaning male and female flowers are produced on separate plants). Leaves: Simple, alternate, lance-shaped, tapering, irregularly lobed, with spiny, toothed margins, stalkless. Current Status. (When we first moved here, the place was overrun with thistles. It it also different from other native North American species given its large roots … Despite its name, the plant was in-troduced from Europe, and is the only thistle, native or introduced, with … Is the thistle spiny along the entire length of the stem? One Canada thistle plant can produce more than 5,000 seeds. It also invades croplands, pastures, lawns, gardens, roadsides, ditches and waste sites. It is difficult to control because its extensive root system allows it to recover from control attempts. Thistle is the common name given to some plants in several genera of the Cynareae tribe, family Asteraceae. Canada thistle has small (3/4 inch diameter), compact flower heads that appear on the upper stems. Fun Facts: Canada thistle is an excellent pollinator plant supplying nectar to bees for honey. hÞÄXmoÛ6þ+ü¸a°ø.QCÀvê6@šyÝjøƒf«±0G6,yiÿýî(Q¦Uù%Y×!8ðHwLJå& #‚)Â#h4ᡂ6$’sh#"%N"umL”DpF¸Á ŒxPˆÄ)Ép Canada thistle is an aggressive perennial, seedlings emerge mid- to-late spring and form rootstocks when they are 3 weeks old. 202 0 obj <>/Filter/FlateDecode/ID[<208D379BADF28750EE1033D046A74A99><2997AEA60A72E64984067F3AA7B7D6F3>]/Index[173 52]/Info 172 0 R/Length 133/Prev 811598/Root 174 0 R/Size 225/Type/XRef/W[1 3 1]>>stream Thistles are members of the sunflower family (Asteraceae) and can be annual, biennal, or perennial. Seeds are often spread by mowing after flowering has begun. If allowed to go to flower, the flower is a purple pom-pom shape that will be produced in clusters at the top of the plant. canada_thistle_cirsium_arvense_flower_072212_AR.jpg Canada thistle is on Control noxious weed list meaning you must prevent the spread of this plant. 3. Herbaceous perennial, 2-6.5’ tall with upright, grooved stems that branch near the top of the plant. is a creeping perennial that reproduces from seed and vegetative roots. It invades undisturbed areas such as prairies, savannas, glades, dunes, streambanks, sedge meadows and forest openings. Fun Facts about the Thistle The Thistle has been Scotlands national emblem for many centuries and is one of the most well known symbols of Scotland. Leaves. It is adapted to a wide range of soil conditions, and spreads vigorously by wind-borne seeds and by way of its extensive, creeping root system. Canada thistle has male and female flowers; Leaves can be chewed to relieve a tooth ache. endstream endobj 174 0 obj <>/Metadata 5 0 R/Pages 168 0 R/StructTreeRoot 9 0 R/Type/Catalog>> endobj 175 0 obj <>/Font<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageC]/XObject<>>>/Rotate 0/StructParents 0/Tabs/S/Type/Page>> endobj 176 0 obj <>stream Canada thistle has long been one of the most problematic weeds in Iowa and the northern corn belt. Later season burns are needed because early-season burning can stimulate plant growth and flowering. Bracts have spineless tips. The Canada thistle is a perennial species of flowering plant in the Asteraceae family. Canada thistle or Canadian thistle, featured here, is native to Eurasia, where it is known as creeping thistle, due to its ability to spread via roots into dense patches. %PDF-1.6 %âãÏÓ Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense) is a perennial that has plagued farmers in America since European settlement, and is a Noxious Weed in Pennsylvania. • Combining control methods is the best form of Canada The perennial weed thrives in sunlit areas. It also produces taproots that may grow more than 6’ deep. Readily regenerates from root fragments. Canada thistle (aka creeping thistle) is a determined weed if ever there was one. Flowers: Numerous, small (0.5-0.75” wide), purple to pink (rarely white) terminal flower heads. Flowering generally occurs from July to August. Canada thistle is an invasive species. Horizontal roots may extend 15 … Quick Facts • Canada thistle is a creeping perennial that reproduces from vegetative buds in its root system and from seed. Its leaves have sharp spines along the edges. Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense) is a persistent perennial weed that causes significant crop yield losses. Canada thistle is a perennial weed that has soft green, deeply lobed, spear-like leaves and these leaves have sharp barbs on them. 2. Canada thistle is a long-lived perennial that usually grows 2 to 3 feet tall and bears alternate, dark green leaves that vary in size. It is a non-native invasive species from Europe, and landowners with Canada thistle on their property are obligated to take measures to control it. Canada Thistle Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop. Canada thistle spreads rapidly through horizontal roots that give rise to large infestation patches nearby and out-competing native plants. 224 0 obj <>stream Fruits & seeds: Small, light brown with a tuft of tan hairs loosely attached to the tip to enable wind dispersal. üh†#šcmÀ+“8n…ýÆ0Ïc"£0&B0"ãN”TàC¢4:ƒ•Ö†Œ1ZF®m¸ÐNÞ¼¡}k:¸î üÝ~]¥t°\ÏÒ5} ìì¬îŒØ± ŽY i€@;¡×é´sÉ ñFÌFÙ؃"Ž¸ t('ô¦\o¦åÇdæ%ôfóg‰Û\fù_Նý. Similar species: Canada thistle is distinguished from all other thistles by creeping lateral roots, dense clonal growth; and small dioecious flower heads (meaning male and female flowers are produced on separate plants). Quick facts. Biological: Stem weevil (Ceutorhynchus litura), bud weevil (Larinus planus), stem gall fly (Urophora cardui), and foliage feeder (Cassida rubiginosa). The Canada thistle is part of the Cirsium genus, in the subtribe Carduinae, trube Cardueae and family Astreracae. Facts about Canada Thistle in one big list. It also produces taproots that may grow more than 6’ deep. The recommendation for Canada thistle was based upon this literature review [PDF] developed by the department. Musk Thistle (Nodding Thistle) Carduus nutans. Canada thistle has purple or white flowers, with stalkless, spiny, dark-green leaves, growing to 0.3-2 metres in height at maturity. It reproduces through both seed and root regeneration, but the latter is the most successful. Thistle. Persistence is imperative so the weed is continually stressed, forcing it to exhaust root nutrient stores and eventually die.Canada thistle (Cir… Chemical: Foliar spray glyphosate during the early bolting phase when plants are 6-10” tall, during the bud to flower phase, or rosettes in the fall; foliar spray with clopyralid or metsulfuron-methyl. The Canada thistle is the only thistle with female and male flowers appearing on separate plants. 1. FAST FACTS. 4. Roots: Reproduces clonally by creeping roots that grow laterally in soil, up to 10-12’ per year. Canada thistle is a widely distributed perennial plant that can grow up to five feet tall. Canada thistle was introduced to North America in the late 1700s. View Canada thistle pictures in our photo gallery! The roots are deep and wide spreading horizontal roots which enable vegetative spread by cloning. Canada Thistle Cirsium arvense (aka Creeping thistle) Overview: A colony-forming, aggressive perennial, that spreads primarily by its creeping root system. Because of its contribution to the persistence of the weed, Canada thistle's extensive root system must be the target of an effective control program. Canada thistle (California thistle, creeping thistle, Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop., Asteraceae), is a perennial weed of pastures, rangelands and agricultural lands in many temperate areas of the world.It is native to southeastern Europe and North Africa. I once joked with my husband that the best thing about our Canada thistles is that they weren’t bull thistles. hÞbbd```b``æ‘ý ’iˆd ‘Œê`}°šc`0›ÉD²)I°ìB°ø,0û9ˆd_"9îƒEAd$˜í"$#Alã§`ÙZ°ú*° ½ Òô&d5< Chatwith customer service M-F 8 a.m. to 5 p.m. © Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources | Site requirements | Accessibility | Legal | Privacy | Employee resources, Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources. The stems are hairy. For more information on control techniques, visit the Canada thistle factsheet [exit DNR] by University of Wisconsin-Extension. Most Canada thistle roots are in the top 0.7 to 2 feet (0.2-0.6 m) of soil, but roots can extend as deep as 6.5 to 22 feet (2-6.75 m). Mechanical: Repeated pulling and mowing (minimum three times per growing season) weakens roots; mow when flower buds are formed but have not yet opened. The leaves are oblong, usually deeply cut, and have spiny, toothed edges. 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